# Similarity vs Distance¶

Distances such as Euclidean distance or Dynamic Time Warping (DTW)
return a value that expresses *how far two instances are apart*.
Such a distance is equal to zero, when the instances are equal, or larger than
zero. In certain cases you might need to translate this distance to:

- A
*similarity measure*that inverts the meaning of the returned values and expresses*how close to instances are*. Typically also bounded between 0 and 1, where now 1 means that two instances are equal. - A
*bounded distance*that limits the range of the distance between 0 and 1, where 0 means that two instances are equal. This can be achieved by squashing to distance between 0 and 1.

The DTAIDistance toolbox provides a number of transformations to translate a distance to a similarity measure or to a squashed distance.

## Similarity¶

Some methods require as input a similarity instead of a distance (e.g., spectral clustering). Therefore, it might be useful to translate the computed distances to a similarity. There are different approaches to achieve this that are supported by dtaidistance: exponential, Gaussian, reciprocal, reverse.

For example, given a set of series (the rows) for which we want to compute the pairwise similarity based on dynamic time warping:

```
from dtaidistance import dtw, similarity
s = np.array([[0., 0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0],
[0., 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[1., 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1],
[0., 0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0],
[0., 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
[1., 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1]])
sim = similarity.distance_to_similarity(dtw.distance_matrix(s))
```

The result is:

```
[[1.00 0.53 0.37 1.00 0.53 0.37]
[0.53 1.00 0.46 0.53 1.00 0.46]
[0.37 0.46 1.00 0.37 0.46 1.00]
[1.00 0.53 0.37 1.00 0.53 0.37]
[0.53 1.00 0.46 0.53 1.00 0.46]
[0.37 0.46 1.00 0.37 0.46 1.00]]
```

You can observe that the diagonal is all ones because each series is similar to itself. And the series at index 0 and 3 are identical, thus also resulting in a similarity of 1.

If you want to use a different conversion than the default exponential by using the method argument.

```
distance_to_similarity(distances, method='exponential')
distance_to_similarity(distances, method='gaussian')
distance_to_similarity(distances, method='reciprocal')
distance_to_similarity(distances, method='reverse')
```

When reapplying the distance_to_similarity function over multiple matrices, it is advised to set the r argument manually (or extract them using the return_params option). Otherwise they are computed based on the given distance matrix and will be different from call to call.

## Squashing¶

Similarity reverses high values to low and low to high. If you want to maintain the direction but squash the distances between 0 and 1, you can use the squash function (based on Vercruyssen et al., Semi-supervised anomaly detection with an application to water analytics, ICDM, 2018).

```
similarity.squash(dtw.distance_matrix(s))
```

Which results in:

```
[[0.00 0.75 0.99 0.00 0.75 0.99]
[0.75 0.00 0.94 0.75 0.00 0.94]
[0.99 0.94 0.00 0.99 0.94 0.00]
[0.00 0.75 0.99 0.00 0.75 0.99]
[0.75 0.00 0.94 0.75 0.00 0.94]
[0.99 0.94 0.00 0.99 0.94 0.00]]
```

You can observe the diagonal is all zeros again (when rounded, the values are slightly larger than zero because logistic squashing is used). And the most different series are close to 1.

When reapplying the squash function over multiple matrices, it is advised to set the x0 and r argument manually (or extract them using the return_params option). Otherwise they are computed based on the given distance matrix and will be different from call to call.